sea water desalination techniques
Seawater desalination techniques depend on the purification and separation of saline sea water into: fresh water that contains a low concentration of dissolved salts, and concentrated salt water, and this process requires some kind of energy to desalinate water, and it uses many different techniques for the separation process, These technological processes spread commercially: the multi-stage distillation process, and reverse osmosis processes, and although desalination techniques are sufficiently studied to be a reliable source of fresh water from the sea, a great deal of research and development has been conducted in order to continuously improve these technologies and reduce the cost of Water desalination.
Distillation is defined as a process in which raw water is evaporated and condensed into fresh water, which is a very energy-intensive process; Therefore it is used in the Middle East where oil is available. Thermal desalination process requires high temperatures, but the use of heat from industrial processes or other cogeneration power plants can reduce the cost.
Reverse osmosis technology appeared in the late fifties of the last century, where it constitutes 65% of water desalination facilities currently, and it is expected that this percentage will rise further, and this technology depends on the theory of diffusion of solutions; It is the use of membranes with relative permeability so that they allow the passage of water molecules through them, and prevent the passage of any other molecules in them. From the less salty side to the more saline side until their salinity equals, and in this way, the brine has been treated.
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