Adequate nutrition is essential for the development and maintenance of the skeleton. AlthAlthoughease of the bone such as osteoporosis and osteomalacia condition of impaired mineralization cause, by vitamin D and calcium diet deficiency ave comb complexes the development of these diseases be minimized of providing adequate nutrients through the life cycle. Of this disease, osteoporosis is the most common and destructive on productivity and quality of life. As is true of many chronic diseases, signs, and, symptoms of osteoporosis become more evident in older age.
The number of preorders 65 years continues to increase:alostb25% of the population by 2020. Our resulting pictures have had one more significant in cost, morbidity, and mortality in the united states. prevention and treatment are equally important to the quality of life.
Bone structure and Bone physiology
Bone is very used to mean an organ, such as the femur, ad tissue as trabecular and cortical. These tissues undergo bone modeling during growth and bone remodeling after growth ceases.
Bone mass is a generic term that refers to bone mineral content describes the general content of bone per unit of bone or bone area. Neither bone mineral nor bone mineraL density provides information on the microarchitectural structural quality of bone tissue.
- Composition of bone: Bone consists of an organic matrix or studio, primarily collagen fibers, in which salts of calcium and phosphate are deposited in combination with hydroxyl ions crystals of hydroxyapatite. The cable-like tensile strength of collagen and the hardness of hydroxyapatite combine to give bone it is a great strength.
- Type of Bone Tissue: Approximately 80%of the skeleton consists of compact or cortical bone tissue. Shafts of the long bones contain primarily cortical bone, which consists of patrons or Haversian systems that under growing continuous but slow remodeling. Both contain an after periosteal layer of compact circumferential lamellae and an inner end steal layer of trabecular tissue. The remaining 20%of skeleton Is trabecular or cancellous bone tissue, which exists in the knobby ends of the long bones, bones iliac crest of the pelvis, the wrists, scapula, vertebrae, and the regions of bones that line the narrow. Trabecular bone is less dense than cortical bone as a result if an open structure of interconnecting bony spicules that resemble a sponge in appearance.
- Bone Calls: Osteoblasts are responsible for the formation or production of bone tissue, osteoblasts govern the resorption or break down of bone.
- rant so, adequate-protein intake, with adequate calcium intake, is needed for optimal bone health.
- Very low protein intake may negatively affect bone turnover and development.
- Cartilage: in the embryo cartilage forms the first temporary skeleton until it develops into a mature bone matrix. In the adult, cartilage is found as flexible supports in areas such as the nose And ear. Cartilage is not bone and is neither vasculature calcified.
Nutrition And Bone
Calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D are essential for normal bone structure and function. Protein, calories, and other micronutrients also help develop and maintain bone.
- Energy: Energy intake does not have a direct effect on bone rather, inadequate energy intake leading to low body weight, or too many calories leading to overweight have effects on bone. Being underweight is considered a risk factor for osteoporosis, whereas being overweight may be protective.
- Protein: protein and calcium are important. Adequate protein intake, with adequate calcium intake, is needed for optimal bone health. The negative effects of either tói high or too low an intake of protein are more pronounced with inadequate calcium intake especially in seniors. The theory that higher protein intakes produce a higher acidic Loss, which increases calcium urinary excretion, has not been verified. Although dietary protein may increase acid loss and thereby increase urinary calcium excretion, protein also may improve calcium absorption and increase growth factors, which also could improve bone health. Very low protein intake may negatively affect bone turnover and development. In case of negative nitrogen balance, such as with fracture or surgery, higher protein intake may be advised.
High Acid or Alkaline Diets
Higher acid diets include those high in protein, dairy, and grains. It is theorized that these higher acid diets may increase calcium excretion and have a detrimental effect on bone. The theory also supports a converse beneficial effect of an alkaline diet on the bone.