Nutrition in Exercise and sports performance

Healthy eating habits and the use of supplements and sports foods may be necessary to support energy needs for training hard, achieving performance goals, and reducing the incidence of illness and injury. Energy and fuel requirements for training and competition also have to adapt for recovery between training sessions to reduce the risk of illness or injury and maintain appropriate body composition international Olympic reducing body composition international Olympic committee(IOC).

An integrative approach to working with athletes

To advance the practice of dietitians working with fitness-minded individuals, cross-disciplinary training provides a border and a more comprehensive understanding and application of the dietary needs of individuals who exercise. Exercise nutrition is not limited to exercise physiology or nutrition but considers six core areas of study including the role of optimal overall health and longevity, optimal growth, peak physiology of function, energy balance and body composition, nutrition enhancement, and safety.

The genetic and individualized differences, exercise environments, and Life stress also can affect the athlete is tolerance of specific nutrients. To prevent nutrients deficiencies, dietitians specific nutrients. To prevent nutrient deficiencies, dietitians must integrate anthropometric, biochemical, and dietary and feedback from athletes to determine whether additional factors such as gut dysbiosis, food allergies or intolerance, dietary preference or aversion, or disease processes may affect the overall absorption, assimilation, directions, transformation, and transport of specific macronutrients, micronutrient, or fluids and ultimately affect performance potential.

Bio energetics of physical activity

Exercise nutrition requires essential elements from food to fuel muscle contractions, build new tissue, preserve lean muscle mass, optimize the skeletal structure, repair existing cells, , maximize oxygen transport, maintain favorable fluid and electrolyte balance, balance regulate metabolic process.

The human body must be supplied continuously with energy to perform it is many complex functions. There metabolic system supply energy for the body one depends on oxygen aerobic metabolism and the other two independent of oxygen creatine phosphate and aerobic glycolysis or anaerobic metabolism.

The use of one system over the other depends on the duration, intensity, and type of physical activity.

  • Adenosine triphosphate (ultimate energy source): Regardless of the energy system used to generate power for exercise the body release on a continuous supply of fuel throw adenosine triphosphate, found within the mitochondria of the body The energy produced from the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate provides the fuel that activates muscle contraction. The energy from adenosine triphosphate is transferred to the contraction filaments myosin and actin in the muscle, which forms an attachment of actin to the cross-bridges on the myosin molecule, this forming actomyosin. Once activated the myofibrils slide past each other and cause the muscle to contract.
  • The energy released from this adenosine triphosphate system will support an all-out exercise effort of only a few, seconds such as in a power lift, tennis serves, or sprint. If the all-out effort continues for longer than 9 seconds, or if moderate exercise is to proceed for longer periods, an additional source If energy must be provided for the rest thesis of adenosine triphosphate. The production of adenosine triphosphate carries on within the muscle throw either anaerobic or aerobic pathways.
  • Aerobic pathway: The production of adenosine diphosphate is an amount sufficient to support continued muscle activity for longer than 90 to 120 seconds requires oxygen. If sufficient oxygen is not present to combine with hydrogen in the electron transport chain, no further adenosine triphosphate is made. Thus the oxygen furnished through respiration is of vital importance.
  • Energy continuum: A Person who is exercising may use one or more energy pathways. For example, at the beginning of any physical activity, adhesion triphosphate is produced anatomically. As exercise continues the lactic Acid System produces adhesion triphosphate for exercise. If the person continues to do exercise and does so at moderate intensity for a prolonged period, the Arabic pathway will become the dominant pathway for fuel. On the other hand, the anaerobic pathway provides most of the energy for a short duration, high-intensity exercises such as sprinting the 200-meter swim or high power, high intensity moves in basketball, football, or soccer. However, all of the adenosine triphosphate generating pathways are turned on at the onset of exercise.
  • protein, fat, and carbohydrates are possible sources of fuel for adenosine triphosphate generation and therefore muscle contraction.

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