favism is a genetic disease that affects males more than females. It is the result of a deficiency of a certain enzyme in the body that helps metabolism called (Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD), which helps red blood cells in their work and protects them from oxidants.
And that is why if it is lacking and the child is exposed to oxidizing substances, the red blood cells will break down
This is what happens when the child eats beans or any other legumes, meaning grains that consist of two halves, and red blood cells break down, which causes the child to develop anemia.
Symptoms of favism:
These are some of the common symptoms of the disease:
- Rapid heart rate.
- Urine is dark in color, more orange in color.
- Fatigue and exhaustion.
- dizziness and lightheadedness.
- Notice yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes.
Risk factors for developing favism:
The chances of getting this disease increase in:
- Men are more likely to suffer from favism compared to women.
- African men.
- People of Middle Eastern origin.
- Those who have a family history of favism.
- However, it is worth noting here that these factors, although they increase the chances of infection, But the presence of these symptoms or some of them is not necessarily a sign of disease that confirms the disease.
Diagnosis of favism
It is possible to diagnose the disease by a doctor through a blood test or G6PD hormone test. Other tests that the doctor may order include:
- Blood count check.
- Hemoglobin test.
- Retinal cell count check.
Treatment of favism disease:
The treatment of bean anemia mainly depends on removing the main catalyst for blood breakdown, whether it is a drug, it must be stopped, even if it is food.
This treatment is in the event that the disease is in an early state and has not developed into severe anemia.
But if the disease develops into cases of hemolysis, the solution is either a blood transfusion or oxygen therapy and stay in the hospital under care until the condition stabilizes.
Are legumes foods the only ones that are prohibited for those who suffer from bean favism?
No of course, There are medicines that contain oxidants that cause anemia for patients with favism.
Prohibited medicine for favism:
- Sulfa medicines that contain trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole such as Septrin, Stream, Septazole and Sotaprim.
- Aspirin, Aspocid, Revo, Excedrin, and anything that contains “acetyl salicylic acid”.
- Nitrofurantoin – the famous treatment of the urinary tract infection such as Euphamin, Macrofuran, Mipafuran.
- Chloramphenicol: Treatment for typhoid like cedocetine and miphenicol.
- Ciprofloxacin is the famous antibiotic like Ciprocin, Ciprofar, Ciprobay, Cerviflox. Bactiflox, Cipromega, Cipromax, Rancef and others.
- Furosemide is a well-known diuretic such as Lasix and Lafurex.
- Nalidixic acid is an antibiotic whose trade name is Nalidram 500.
- Levofloxacin, the famous antibiotic such as Tavanic, Tavacin, Levoxin, Li-Flox, Monosho, Fluxapact, Unibiotic.
- Pefloxacin is also an antibiotic like Globacin, peflox, pelox
- Moxafloxacin is a broad spectrum antibiotic such as Moxacin, Moxiflox, Moxavidex, Delmoxa.
- Malaria treatment like primaquine and mefloquine
- Urinary tract antiseptics containing phenazopyridine like, urisept and Urotrim.
- Celecoxib is a famous anti-inflammatory and analgesic such as Celebrex, arthtrix, Eurocox, celeborg.
- Lamotrigine, the famous anti-epileptic drug like Lamotrin, Lamictal, Controlepsy, Leptrogine.
- Mesalazine, Colon medicine like pentasa and Salazine.
- Metformin, the famous diabetic and slimming drug like cidophage, Glucophage and Diaphage.
- Tamsulin Prostate treatment “alpha blocker” known as Omnic, tamsulosin, Tamic, Tamsul.
- Acetazolamide, treatment for intraocular pressure, such as Cidamex and Acetamex.
- The treatment of leprosy, which is dapsone.
- doxorubicin chemotherapy.
- Some diabetic medications such as Doanil, Diabene, Glucovance, Glimet, Diavanse.
- Furosemide is a well-known diuretic such as Lasix and Laviurex.